Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Great Tips For Online Students

Great Tips For Online StudentsWith the ever increasing demand for those hard-to-find, no frills, no credit but high-quality research papers by a nation of students, it has become difficult to find the right books and study guides in your area. Yet, with online shopping, you can now access the best books and study guides for the more than one hundred colleges and universities across the United States. All you need to do is search for your specific university or college's name and type it into Google. If you are not sure about the most current and available resources, here are some pointers for your convenience.Text Books: Text books are the most economical way to fulfill your requirements and all the information you need to know in a short period of time. From the academic history of the great nations, to global news, studies on social issues and current events, if you are an aspiring writer and thinker, then you will be able to complete the composition on time.Online Study Guides: Re search papers and other study guides are available through various websites and platforms. These online resources have condensed and organized information that you might be faced with in the other way as well. They make it easy for you to browse through different topics and check for the ones that suit your needs and interests.Online - Comprehensive Educational Resources: There are websites that offer excellent and proper research papers on selected subjects based on the type of the book you prefer. You may be required to submit a sample paper if you wish to become a part of their database. However, they are very inexpensive and affordable.Online - Study Guides: Some online study guides contain multimedia, audio and video files to enhance the learning process. They also contain personal tips and hints that could make your studies fun. They are very helpful for all types of learners, whether you are in middle school or a college student.EBooks: Ebooks are very popular nowadays as the y can be easily downloaded from the Internet. But they are not available in all these websites, hence you must look around for them. Most of these books are written by scholars who provide high quality academic research papers.Online Study Guides: If you are a student, an online guide is the best way to go. These books help you in completing the projects on time.

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

The Similarities Of Films Who Does Not Love A Great...

Cody Gilroy Intro to Cinema Professor Lee December 6, 2016 The Similarities of Films Who does not love a great comedy film. I know that comedy is my favorite genre. When thinking about comedies or comedians one person comes to mind, Will Ferrell. In some people’s opinion he is the best comedian actor. Will Ferrell just so happen to be in a comedy partnership with director Adam McKay. McKay is responsible for over 20 films. There are three films that I am particularly fond of The Other Guys, Anchorman: The Legend of Ron Burgundy, and Step Brothers. Ä€ Adam McKay does not single handedly write his movies. Like I said, he and Ferrell are in a partnership and co-write movies together. Adams movies tend to be a â€Å"mean† or not appropriate for children. When did comedies start saying four letter words every other sentence. The times have changed that is for sure. I would be lying if I said I was shocked. I would also be lying if I said I had no taste, or judgment of comic strategy. Because, like I said I am very fond of these movies. Adam’s films have a lot in common including his own partner. Will Ferrell plays the main character in most of McKay’s films. In fact, he is the main character in all three of the films that I have chosen. So it may that I just like movies with Will Ferrell. Adam McKay has a tendency to starting off his movies with a quote, and of course he works with Will. In the movie Stepbrothers, an American buddy slapstick comedy which stars Will Ferrell andShow MoreRelatedThe Femme Fatale : An American Genre That Became Popular During The Great Depression889 Words   |  4 PagesLike film noir, screwball comedy is an American genre that became popular during the Great Depression. Its purpose was to instill a feeling of hope within the audience through its romantic storylines. As film noir did, screwball comedy provided an escape for Americans. However, in screwball comedy, they look at the bright side but in film noir, the characters are more brooding. Male and female characters play an important role in these genres because gender identities are reconstructed in both. TheRead MoreAnalysis Of La Vita E Bella715 Words   |  3 PagesOriginal Dramatic Score and Best Foreign Language Film, La Vita e Bella, remains an intensely challenging contribution to the developing body of films about the holocaust. Witten and directed by Italy’s nationa l treasure, Roberto Benigni, it is a film of two distinct halves that battles through the tragic past to remember the happy times during such misery. But does Benigni depict this fabrication in a deceiving light? A moral and fable, the film stretches the fact that life is sacred, precious andRead MoreBirth of a Nation1338 Words   |  6 Pagessubject everywhere, even in film. The movie Birth of a Nation is considered one of the greatest films of all time, even with these themes. AMC’s Filmsite even has it listed within the 100 Greatest Films of All Time. Another movie with the some of the same themes is Blazing Saddles. Blazing Saddles does not have the same stature as Birth of a Nation, but it does deserve to be higher in the canon. I do believe that Blazing Saddles does not have the same stature because it is a comedy with crude humor andRead MoreShakespeare in Love Essay2078 Words   |  9 Pagesbest. The main theme portrayed in Shakespeare in Love is a love that is never meant to be. Shakespeare in Love parallels the play Shakespeare is currently working on, Romeo and Juliet, in which love is not meant to be due to the many obstacles in the way. Shakespeares life in the film is very comparable to Romeos life in Romeo and Juliet. William Shakespeares life in the film and the play he is writing has several similarities and differences. In my opinion, this is one of theRead MoreAnalysis Of The Movie I re Your Problem Annie 1400 Words   |  6 Pagesâ€Å"You’re your problem Annie, and you’re also your solution,† is something surprisingly deep from the R-rated Comedy Bridesmaids (1:37:13). This movie is about a girl, Annie, who along with falling on hard times has to plan her best friend, Lillian’s wedding while dealing with a crazy group of bridesmaids: Helen, the rich perfectionist, Rita, the mother who hates her three boys, Becca, the newly wed, and Megan, the overtalkative nutcase. Bridesmaids has a lot of truths about money, success, and overallRead MoreEssay on The Outcome of Twelfth Night by William Shakespeare2736 Words   |  11 Pagesby William Shakespeare in the Elizabethan era, is a dramatic comedy enriched with a great deal of hurt to accompany scandalous behaviour and shocking deceptions. The comical elements of this play are those which contribute to Elizabethan humour. The principal characters are of a high social status, making any disruption to their life humorous. The main characters are part of the whirlwind of unrequited love and mistaken identity, which when together are hazardous. Read MoreDeath in What Dreams May Come and Dantes Inferno Essay1086 Words   |  5 PagesWhat Dreams May Come and Dantes Inferno Death and what comes after has always been a subject of great interest and uncertainty. Many have tried to depict their own vision of the afterlife, be it heaven or hell, paradiso or inferno. Here, I will discuss the similarities and differences in the hell represented in the movie What Dreams May Come and the Inferno of Dante Alighieris Divine Comedy. What Dreams May Come is a movie about two soul mates, Chris (Robin Williams) and Annie (Anabella Sciorra)Read MoreCruelty in Twelfth Night by William Shakespeare Essay2603 Words   |  11 Pagesthat this should be a happy, festive comedy, its title is from the twelve-day cycle of celebration enjoyed by medieval revellers each December. As this is a comedy it means that there are multiple marriages in the final scene and happy endings for most, except maybe one person who is seen as a fool throughout the play in this instance, Sir Andrew or Malvolio or some may even think, Orsino if they have seen the Trevor Nunn film of this play, in my opinion Feste will not Read MoreTelevision Sitcom : A Tv Sitcom1635 Words   |  7 Pagesrise of the surreal and post-modern sitcoms of the 90’s and 00’s. The Typical format of a Sitcom is the Multi-camera setup in front of a studio audience, This became the industry standard for sitcoms because it was a quick, cheap, efficient way to film, any sets that were needed were usually fairly simple with each show only using one or 2 different sets. â€Å"The plots centered around situations with which the average reader was familiar: housecleaning, catching a train, illness, Quitting smoking andRead MoreEssay on A Comparison of Beauty and the Beast with Toy Story1236 Words   |  5 Pageschildrens books and films to holiday resorts and theme parks. The Disney brand appeals to all, children and adults alike. Beauty and the Beast is a classic film using old style animation techniques. It has been recently digitally re-mastered for the next generation to enjoy the magic of Disney. In comparison Toy Story uses computer generated images which saves time and gives a more realistic feel to the film. Although these are very different films they still have some

Saturday, May 16, 2020

Cognitive Psychology The Mind As An Information Processor

Though we may not realize it nor want to acknowledge it, Cognitive Psychology is a part of every human s daily life. Cognitive Psychology is the scientific study of the mind as an information processor. In a simpler definition, it is the study of how our minds interpret and process things that we either are informed of or something we take into thought. Cognitive Psychology is a part of our attention process, language use, our memory for both long and short term, perception, problem solving, creativity, and the way we think. Each of these different features are a part of how we perceive information, think, remember, and use the information we gather. Through this branch of psychology, researchers are able to observe the relationship†¦show more content†¦Neisser wrote the first published book on Cognitive Psychology in the year of 1967. This book revealed his research on new-found information on how people learn, the structure of the brain and how we think, how the brain stor es knowledge, and how humans use knowledge. Neisser was concerned that cognitive psychology was starting to become distant from reality. Therefore, he suggested that cognitive psychologist redirect their interested attention and pay more attention to the world in which cognition is lively occurring. A few more important figures in our society to the cognition world would be Aaron Beck, Albert Ellis, and Walter Mischel. Beck was a developer of cognitive therapy by which is now used to help disorders that vary from depression, panic attacks, eating disorders, and even addictions. Becks therapy fell right into the works of Ellis, who created behavioral therapy to help like rational-emotive therapy.Then, Mischel took both of these therapies and combined their theories to focus on personality formation and the issues with the conscious. As studies continued, the obvious came along that nothing is perfect including our minds. By this, psychologist found mental disorders. The study of the se disorders are known as Psychopathology. The study of Psychopathology brought to attention that these cognitive disorders start slowly and progress until they affect one’s life toShow MoreRelatedThe Rise of the Cognitive Perspective1123 Words   |  5 PagesRise of the Cognitive Perspective Throughout the history of modern psychology there has been no greater breakthrough than the development of the cognitive perspective. From the beginning of the late 1950 s, the cognitive perspective has dominated all other forms of psychology, but to better understand why this perspective rose so quickly one must first understand what it is. The cognitive perspective can best be described as a genre of psychology concerned with how people acquire, store, transformRead MoreEssay on The Sophistication of the Brain1473 Words   |  6 PagesTo what extent is it true that the brain is a sophisticated information processor? The human brain is the most important part of the nervous system. The brain along with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system and together they control all of the body’s important functions, such as motor functions, speech, vision, hearing and also involuntary functions like breathing. Many of these functions are localised to a specific area of the cerebrum. The cerebrum is split into four lobes; theRead MorePsychology : Cognitive Psychology And Psychology980 Words   |  4 Pages A Cognitive Psychology 1064 Words 5 Pages Cognitive psychology began around 19th century. Different approaches have been used to trace the roots of psychology. It is also known that cognitive psychology was out numbered by behaviorism but later revived, bringing into being cognitive revolution. The paper discusses cognitive revolution in the history of cognitive psychology as the most influential part in the practice of modern psychology. Introduction A scientific branch of psychology that isRead MoreCognitive Psychology Essay1069 Words   |  5 PagesCognitive psychology began around 19th century. Different approaches have been used to trace the roots of psychology. It is also known that cognitive psychology was out numbered by behaviorism but later revived, bringing into being cognitive revolution. The paper discusses cognitive revolution in the history of cognitive psychology as the most influential part in the practice of modern psychology. Introduction A scientific branch of psychology that is concerned with the study of cognitionRead MorePsychological Approaches : Behaviorism, Cognitive And Humanistic Approach1659 Words   |  7 Pages1.1 Analysis of three psychological approaches; behaviourism, cognitive and humanistic. Three psychological approaches will be discussed in this essay, it will analyse the strengths and limitations of each the humanistic, cognitive and the humanistic approach. This essay will consider the contributions made to therapies in the modern life; evaluate how valid the methodology is using case studies to back up these theories and how they contribute to each other to becoming an approach. The behaviouristRead MoreI Am Looking At Where Psychology As A Discipline1361 Words   |  6 PagesHistory of Psychology In this essay I am looking at where Psychology as a discipline has come from and what affects these early ideas have had on psychology today, Psychology as a whole has stemmed from a number of different areas of study from Physics to Biology, But the first Psychological foundations are rooted in philosophy, which to this day propels psychological inquiry in areas such as language acquisition, consciousness, and even vision among many others. While the great philosophicalRead MoreEssay about History of Psychology1417 Words   |  6 PagesExplain the reasons for the development of psychology as an academic discipline in the 19th and 20th centuries, making explicit the important turning points and breakthroughs. In this essay I am looking at where Psychology as a discipline has come from and what affects these early ideas have had on psychology today, Psychology as a whole has stemmed from a number of different areas of study from Physics to Biology, But the first Psychological foundations are rooted in philosophy, which to thisRead MoreEssay about Social Cognition - Psychology1410 Words   |  6 PagesSocial Cognition: A science The psychological definitions Breakdown of social psychology Relations to other corresponding theories The theory of social cognition Incorporating stereotypes Schemata Cultural social cognition Holistic thinking Social cognitive neuroscience A personality in jeopardy Social Cognition Social cognition is the encoding, storage, retrieval, and processing, of information in the brain. It is a process that is generalized within a species, and relatesRead MoreStrengths And Weaknesses Of Psychology1411 Words   |  6 Pagesstated that within ‘contemporary psychology’ there are many different approaches used to understand the study of human behaviour, with each approach having a different perspective. There may be many theories within a psychological perspective, but they will all have common assumptions on the way we function. As no approached is viewed as right or wrong, they are often just evaluated for their strengths and weaknesses and what they have brought to modern psychology in the understanding of human behaviourRead MoreThe Psychoanalytical Theory Of Psychology1567 Words   |  7 PagesThe Psychoanalytical Approach to psychology is arguably the first theory of psychology. The psychoanalytical approach is the study of unconscious forces and how t hese affect our behaviour. Freud was the first to challenge the view that mental disorders were not caused by physical illness. Instead he proposed that psychological factors were responsible. Freud is a key theorist of the psychoanalytical approach. He was an Austrian neurologist who was fascinated with studying hysteria. Freud began

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Disease Known as Diabetes - 1089 Words

8.3 percent of Americans have a disease called diabetes mellitus, also known as diabetes. It is characterized by high blood sugar, brought on either because the pancreas is not producing enough of a hormone called insulin, which helps remove glucose from the blood, or because the cells are unresponsive to the insulin that is being produced. Three symptoms that result from this high blood sugar are polyuria, or frequent urination, polydipsia, or increased thirst, and polyphagia, or increased appetite. When the body cannot produce insulin, this is called type 1 diabetes. People with this type of diabetes usually have to inject insulin or wear an insulin pump. In contrast, when cells simply cannot use insulin correctly, the patient has type 2 diabetes. This is usually treated by increasing exercise or making adjustments to the diet, which should lower blood sugar. Finally, a third type of diabetes called gestational diabetes occurs only in pregnant women. These women have not been previ ously diagnosed with diabetes, rather, they have developed high blood sugar during their pregnancy. If not effectively treated by making changes to the diet, gestational diabetes can be a precursor to type 2 diabetes as well as childhood obesity and eventual diabetes in the infant. Of all cases of diabetes, only about five to ten percent are type 1. Even so, more and more people worldwide are being diagnosed every year, and the effects of the disorder are very serious if not severe on both theShow MoreRelatedDiabetes : A Common And Well Known Disease1564 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction Diabetes is a common and well-known disease in the US. Healthcare providers manage the care of patients daily as both direct and indirect effects of diabetes contribute to their poor health. Diabetes mellitus type 2 is characterized by high blood sugar levels as a result of insulin resistance. The risk factors associated with an increasing prevalence in the US includes genetics, family history, poor eating habits, sedentary lifestyle, and obesity.1 Healthcare providers are challengedRead MoreDiabetes : A Common And Well Known Disease That Affects People Of Different Ages1548 Words   |  7 PagesAbstract This paper explores the three different types of Diabetes, a common and well-known disease that affects people of different ages. It explains the difference between Type 1, Type 2, and Gestational Diabetes and how prevalent it is in today’s generation. A sudden spike in a person’s blood sugar numerous times is an indication that a person has developed this disease. There are countless of people that are not fully aware of what a consistent rise in blood sugar can do to a person’s body.Read MoreThe Health And Economic Consequences Of Diabetes1594 Words   |  7 Pages Diabetes affects 18.2 million people in the United States. It is often referred to by doctors as diabetes mellitus and described as, â€Å"†¦ a metabolic disease in which the person has high blood sugar †¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Collazo- Clavell et all. 2009), either because the insulin is inadequate or the body’s cells don’t respond well to the insulin. The health and economic conseq uences of diabetes are considerable. The majority of people that have diabetes live in low and middle income countries, where the prevalenceRead MoreDiabetes As A Western Disease1489 Words   |  6 Pagesenergy, some may make us sluggish and lazy. Diabetes has been around for decades, as the increase in assortment of food and different varieties have become assessable to individuals globally, we have been dealt with a larger problem than many predicated. Diabetes started as a western disease has made its way to being a global problem with many organizations leading the fight to find ways to reduce the epidemic. While many may disagree that the disease has reach its apex and have already spread,Read MoreDiabetes Mellitus Type 2 Diabetes1628 Words   |  7 PagesDiabetes mellitus type 2, also know as type 2 Diabetes or noninsulin dependent diabetes, is a disease that effects the body systemically. Type 2 diabetes is a disorder in which cells become resistant to insulin and can no l onger bind it properly to reduce blood sugar. The result of this is elevated glucose levels in the circulating blood that leads to endothelial injury in all regions of the body. Primary damages occur in the kidneys, cardiovascular, and digestive systems. According to â€Å"Annual NumberRead MoreTaking a Look at Diabetes636 Words   |  3 PagesDiabetes is a disease that affects millions of people around the world. Diabetes has become a rapidly growing issue that has drawn concern from both doctors and patients alike. Around 25 million people in the United States have diabetes mellitus, commonly known as diabetes. Also around 80 million people have pre-diabetes mellitus. There are almost two million people who are diagnosed with diabetes each year. If diabetes rates don’t soon begin to drop, an estimated one in every three adults will haveRead MoreDiabetes Is A Disease Of The Endocrine System1006 Words   |  5 Pagesportions of populations are impacted by a life-altering d isease called Diabetes. There are many types of diabetes, however type 2 specifically tends to affect more people than any other type. Diabetes is a disease of the endocrine system and is the result of high blood glucose, or blood sugar, and the lack of insulin doing its job properly. In 1910, an English Physiologist by the name of Sir Edward Albert Sharpey-Schafer discovered the disease, diabetes. He also discovered Insulin while studying the pancreasRead MoreTrick or Treat Diabetes863 Words   |  3 Pages Trick or treat diabetes Diabetes also known as diabetes mellitus is a disease related to metabolism, caused due to high level of glucose present in the blood. Diabetes is caused because pancreas is not able to produce enough insulin or cells are not able to respond to the insulin. The most common symptoms include periodic urination, increase thirst and hunger. There are different types of diabetes mellitus some are listed below: 1) Type 1 diabetes is caused because of the destruction of ÃŽ ²-cellsRead MoreDiabetes: The Disease614 Words   |  3 Pagesdiagnosed with diabetes. Almost twenty-six million Americans are living with diabetes today. Seven million of the twenty-six million do not even know they have diabetes. Diabetes is a treatable disease and can be controlled in most cases. Many items that can complicate diabetes include: kidney disease, high blood pressure, heart disease, blindness, neuropathy, and blindness. Chances of having diabetes are increased by a set of genes. The two kinds of diabetes that are commonly known are type 1 andRead MoreType Two Diabetes Is A Lifelong Disease941 Words   |  4 PagesType-two diabetes is a lifelong disease that affects the way the body manages the sugar levels in the body known as blood glucose. The most common form of diabetes is type-two diabetes. Many factors, some by choice and others by genetics, contribute to a person developing this type-two diabetes. This disease has serious complications but can be controlled by careful maintenance and a well-planned lifestyle. Special cells called beta cells located in the pancreas produce a hormone called insulin

Government Internet Censorship of China - 1195 Words

Government Internet Censorship of China The Internet is also called â€Å"Information superhighway† because of the limitless amount of data that one person can access from it. The fact is not all of us can access the Internet like what it is. There are many roadblocks on the superhighway in form of â€Å"Internet Censorship†. There are several kinds of motivations for censorship. It ranges from keeping children away from undesirable content to a government control of nation’s access of information. In China, the internet censorship is especially strong. According to the study of Chinese Internet censorship by OpenNetInitiative â€Å"China operate the most extensive, technologically sophisticated, and broad-reaching system of Internet filtering in the word†(OpenNetInitiative 2005). In this essay, I want to write about how the â€Å"Internet censorship† working in China and why China government is running such strong regulations controlling internet. Internet has arrived in China since 1994. Because of the importance of the internet for China’s global economic competitiveness, leaders of China had no choice but open this window. This is not the first time China opening itself to the world. Since the policy of â€Å"reform and opening up† began by Deng Xiaoping, China has opened it’s door to foreign trade and investment. At that time, they managed to ensure the rise of new commercial class was not accompanied by political change. One of Deng’s favourite saying was: â€Å"If you open the window forShow MoreRelatedInternet Censorship in China Essay937 Words   |  4 Pagesamong numerous other sites, regularly. The internet is open and uncensored for the most part, other than parental controls. In China, most, if not all of those types of sites are or have been blocked. As in, you could not go to them, unless you found some way around the web filters and firewalls the Chinese government runs in their c ountry. While China defends their practice of internet censorship, based on â€Å"protecting† the people, heavy internet censorship is a block to free speech and impedes economicRead MoreEssay on Censorship in China907 Words   |  4 PagesChina is one of the most controlled countries in the world. The Chinese constitution states that the people of China have freedom of speech, of the press, and of demonstration. However, this article in the constitution also states that the Chinese government has the authority to censor anything in the country when freedom of speech or of press could potentially be harmful to the country. So, in China, you are free to speak, but only about what the government says is okay to talk about. Also, protestingRead MoreThe American Government s Involvements And Influences On The Internet1619 Words   |  7 Pagesinvolvements and influences in the Internet compare to Chinese government? Thesis: The United States’ government had played the most important role of developing Internet, and did a great contribution certainly. However, Chinese government had a very different attitudes with American government for Internet at last century when Internet started developing because of some domestic factors. Later, Chinese government changed its attitudes and behaviors. The Internet began developing so fast and playedRead MoreInternet Censorship Essay1329 Words   |  6 PagesInternet Censorship Used Around The World Some people wonder who came up with the idea of internet censorship. Other people want to know which countries use it. Some ponder over the idea of what really is internet censorship. Internet censorship is controlling what can be viewed, and which sites can be used on the internet. Some things about internet censorship are countries that use it, and who started the idea of it. There are lots of countries that use internet censorship. A few of them are ChinaRead MoreThe Disadvantages Of Censorship In China1459 Words   |  6 Pages Censorship is the suppression or prohibition of any parts of books, films, news, etc. that are considered obscene, politically unacceptable, or a threat to security. There are good reasons why censorship is used, such as some information might have to be censored for the content it might display and which in turn might cause a disturbance in peace. Countries try not abuse the fact they are allowed to do this because they are the ones who create the rules. However, China is abusing this fact andRead MoreNegative Effects Of Internet Censorship791 Words   |  4 PagesInternet censorship is controlling the content that can be viewed on the internet. It is all around us and you may not even realize that you have encountered it, whether it has been at school or work. In school, you are not allowed to access certain websites and sear ch results may be filtered. Schools do this to keep harmful content from the students, but it also limits research. When you are at work, your employer does not want you looking at inappropriate websites or things that may distract youRead MoreGovernments Censoring Internet Content1490 Words   |  6 PagesThis paper explores the pros and cons of government involvement in controlling the content of the Internet. Everyday technology is getting more sophisticated, meaning that nowadays it is easy to explore about a certain issue via online connection and be near the world. In the present, as long as you have Internet connection, you have the ability to have access to all kind of information that is posted on Internet. There is a huge debate whether internet should be regulated or not, and this is exceptedRead MoreChapter 2 Closing Case Essay893 Words   |  4 Pagesstance toward Internet search in China consistent with its mission? Google’s stance toward internet search in China is not consistent with its mission. Google’s mission of making the world’s information universally acceptable and useful are present at Google in China even though they are censoring. The service is still there. Even though the Chinese initially blocked them, they were convinced that the 400 million internet users in the Chinese market needed them and they need China. (Lee, 2014)Read MoreEssay On Breaking Through The Great Firewall1304 Words   |  6 PagesFirewall of China Within the United States, the first amendment, freedom of speech includes the cyber-web. However, the government may try to examine personal information to protect its citizens from planned terroristic activities. Even so, these terrorists are allowed to say whatever they want, but it does not mean it will be ignored and not taken as a literal threat by the government. Throughout other parts the world, however, countries rely on communicating through means of the internet as waysRead MoreThe Censorship Of The Government In The Chinese Government1070 Words   |  5 Pagessuccessful in the country of China by instilling fear in their citizens to follow the communist beliefs and be closed off to democratic societies. The Chinese government has successfully blocked out information such as the Taiwanese Independence and information of about the 1989 killings in Tiananmen Square (Rauhala 2016). They believe that this creates a â€Å"healthy internet† however this policy only impede s free speech. They believe that this creates a â€Å"healthy internet† however this policy only impedes

Department of Social and Decision Sciences †MyAssignmenthelp.com

Question: Discuss about the Department of Social and Decision Sciences. Answer: Introduction: Currently, there is little clarity regarding the costs and benefits of climate change to the world economy. An economic analysis helps understand the impact of climate change on the economy of any country and to make decisions regarding sacrificing present economic growth for long-term benefits to the economy. This paper helps provides an understanding on how climate change is a relevant economic phenomenon since it represent a market failure. Additionally, it outlines how consumption in the future and uncertainty regarding the consumption growth of future generations affects the decision-making process of limiting emissions in the present time. It also provides a brief understanding on how a national policy on climate is tied to its growth as well as to global growth. It is important to note that throughout the paper, it is assumed that economic growth (represented by consumption) is dependent on availability of environmental resources which are limited. Climate change is often described as market failure. This is simply due to the fact that policy intervention is required to correct the possible harmful effects of climate change. If countries had to face the effects of climate change proportional to their emissions, then there would have been a market driven response to the problem and countries would have acted to reduce their emissions. However, given that climate change does not have isolated effects and there is no natural mechanism to correct this problem and given that its negative effects are felt by the world as one community, there must be social mechanisms or policy interventions to correct climate change.(Stern, 2007)(Thomas, 2017) Climate change is a result of the market not considering some social costs into valuation. Some of these non-valuations include: Some of the forms of market failure of climate change are: The impact on climate due to warming caused by Green House Gas emissions. : Non- Valuation of Clean Air, water etc. as economic goods Subsidies on Fossil Fuels The lack of any policy levers will lead to the failure of climate change adaptation and innovations to reduce the social costs of climate change since policy levers drive the market to pay for the social costs or impose checks (quotas) on the externalities of every economic activity. In the absence of adaptation measures, effects of climate change such as floods, droughts etc. would have serious impact on growth and GDP. The consequences of this market failure would be felt on the society, specifically, the increased health care costs due to the effects of global warming and lack of clean air, the amount of impact on more vulnerable communities, loss of future growth due to diminishing availability of natural resources, disruptions caused in the economy due to extreme temperatures etc. (Thomas, 2017) Climate change is an example of market failure because pricing of economic activities do no take into account the negative externalities to the environment. A Negative externality or a diseconomy is, mathematically, a (negative) deviation of Marginal Private Cost (MPC) from the marginal social cost. According to Lipsey Chrystal, (2011) Private costs are those costs that are incurred by parties that are involved directly in the Economic activity and Social costs are those costs that are borne by the society . Hence, the marginal private costs refers to the private cost of the last producing the last unit produced or providing services to the last consumer serviced. The Marginal Social Cost is a valuation of the impact borne by the society in the production of the last unit of good or services. Negative externalities decrease the social good i.e. they have harmful effects or cause inconvenience to the public, in general. (Lipsey Chrystal, 2011) The following is a diagram of the negative externalities and the loss of social good resulting from it. The Marginal Private Costs in the cost of mining coal from around the area. This cost does not include the costs that society has to bear due to the mining. The Marginal social Cost includes the valuation of losses resulting from the mining of coal in the area. The loss of social good is the difference between the two.(Riley, 2005). Reduction or phasing out subsidies: A 2015 IMF report estimated that subsidies advanced towards fossil fuel have an annual cost of $5.3 Trillion dollars to consumers and tax payers. Pricing the consumers of fossil fuel at actual will help get rid of this distortion. (Stern, 2007)(International Monetary Fund, 2015) Carbon Pricing and Carbon Pricing: Taxing emissions based to the aggregate negative externalities caused will help reduce extent of the market failure. This is known as carbon pricing. Apart from pricing carbon, all Green House Gas can be calculated in terms of carbon units (similar to converting all currencies into dollar terms) and all economic activities must minimize their carbon units like they would minimize costs. In order to exceed the quota of carbon emissions, carbon credits would have to be purchased by producers. This is known as carbon trading.(Stern, 2007)(Holderhead, 2016) Carbon pricing will help remove losses depicted in the above diagram. Encouraging innovation in technologies that help solve he problem of climate change: The problem of climate change is that of providing better technology. Hence, subsidizing innovation is important.(Stern, 2007) Arrow, in his analysis, treated the Green House Emissions resulting from economic activities as an environmental good. If Green House Gas Emissions are goods, then the problems caused by Greenhouse Gas Emissions then the social costs are the costs and the benefits of reducing GHG emissions are the benefits. According to Arrow The benefits of reduced GHG emissions last for centuries, but mitigation costs are borne today.(Arrow K. J., 2007) This implies that investment in the benefits of mitigation of greenhouse gases for the future must be borne and made by present generations. However, for the utility (assuming this to be the benefits of current economic growth) of today, to be substituted for the utility of tomorrow, the benefits accrued from the GHG reductions must be greater than the utility foregone today. This is akin to making savings in the present, in order to ensure growth in the future (Frederick, 1999). Additionally Arrow Stated that is the rate at which society (i.e., the social planner) discounts the utility of future generations i.e. the rate at which the rate at which society would trade consumption in year t for consumption in the present (measured by Net Present Value of Consumption.(Arrow, et al., 2011) According to Arrow, utility of consumption is similar to the dimi nishing marginal utility concept. Very simply put, the more of consumption (total consumed in a society) that a generation has, the less social benefit (utility) they may derive from it. In the diagram, the curve is concave to the origin because this rate of returns gained from sacrificing consumption (i.e the rate at which present gains are transformed in future gains) in present for the future consumption keeps diminishing. In the context of a society, as consumption rises, its social benefits tend to diminish and the total social value of consumption tends to have diminishing returns. When the values of are high, it implies that future social utility (benefits) is declines at greater rate with an increase in consumption. Hence, is the slope of this curve also known as Marginal Rate of Substitution (MRS). If g is higher, it means that the real growth of consumption is higher i.e the future generations are wealthier (for example, in the context of natural resources availability, they have a greater availability of resources for growth). Higher g for the future, implies, higher growth rate in the future. If is high, then it would imply that the future benefits may be preferable than future consumption and would make the case for a greater sacrifice in the present. The effect of an uncertain g to a great extent relies on whether the utility of future generations is evaluated at a constant rate or at a declining rate. The impact, therefore, is based on assumptions and is a matter of practice and policy. (Arrow, et al., 2011) Uncertainty comes from various factors such as how long a time horizon is being taken into account and the actual growth of consumption over that time horizon. In an interpretation of Ramseys formula, uncertainty regarding g would imply that there would precautionary effect i.e. society would tend to prefer present consumption and it would reduce the discount rate (Arrow, et al., 2011). According to Arrow, uncertainty about g would imply that any shocks in consumption would have a greater impact. In case of a catastrophe, there will be a greater impact on g, if there is uncertainty. However, if the supply shock is positive, the effect might be reversed i.e. if there are new renewable resources discovered that would help increase the growth potential of the future consumption, then supply shocks are negatively correlated. Hence, in order to maintain g, the society must take greater precautions. The certainty equivalent discount rate will decline. The more uncertainty there is regardin g g the more will the value of discount rate decline over a period of time. The article talks about the trade offs between giving up the benefits of giving up on fossil fuel based electricity i.e. lower emissions versus the costs of giving up on consumption of fossil fuel based electricity i.e. higher electricity prices in the present and its effect on growth. (Morton, 2017) A decrease in the supply of fossil fuel in the current times due to coal power plants become obsolete or due to the presence of moratoriums on gas production. This has led to an aggregate reduction in electricity in supply of electricity from fossil fuels. (Morton, 2017) This implies that the discount rate for future consumption i.e. is high and the availability of the consumption utility for future generations of Australia is high. The saving rate of natural resources is high in such a case. However, there must be an evaluation to understand whether the benefits accrued from such heavy discount are worth the returns. Such a trade off can be evaluated on various parameters. For example, growth in population could be one parameter. Australia is expected to grow at a rate of 3% in 2018 while its population is expected to grow at 1.4 % per annum. (Roca, 2013)(Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2017).The trade-off is to maintain the current consumption and maintaining a saving rate to ensure optimal economic growth for the future population. A slow down in the natural resources sector coal, gas etc. will drag the present economic growth rate down.(Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2017). However, the population of Australia is also expected to grow. (Roca, 2013)Hence, consumption and production of goods are expected to grow. This implies that the level of electricity generation must cope up with the growth in demand for electricity due to increased growth rate, in the present. Hence, the present value of electricity consumption is high. This may diminish since NPV of electricity is high. The above diagram depicts that electricity related emissions in Australia are set to be lower because of relatively flat demand for electricity in the country and decrease in intensity of electricity production.(ACIL Allen Consulting, 2016) Hence, decreasing electricity related emissions is not a priority . In this analysis, it is also important to take into consideration that the population of Australia. The population of Australia is expected to be at 38.5 million.(Roca, 2013) However, the population of Australia is expected to grow at a diminishing rate which means that the demand for electricity would grow at a diminishing rate. (Roca, 2013). If demand for electricity follows the growth in population as well as growth in consumption, then the demand for electricity g would, also, grow and diminish later on. However, the negative externalities of production of electricity are very large. The shut down of coal plants presents an opportunity for policy intervention as there is an opportunity to take decision on what kind of fuel would be used to generate electricity in the future. The government could reduce the social cost of reducing the component by creating policies that would incentivize the production of clean energy. According to the article, in spite of abolishing a carbon tax on the production of electricity, the prices of electricity have increased. This suggests that demand for electricity has grown at a high rate. To summarize, Australia would need to reduce electricity price, in order to maintain growth in the near term. Hence, the government could increase the supply of fossil- fuel based electricity by increasing the supply of gas-fired electricity plants. (Morton, 2017)The government could, also, adopt an emission intensity based system for production of gas.(Morton, 2017) Emission intensity based system caps the emissions allowed from every sector of economy and provides disincentives to companies that do not follow the caps. According to the scheme, energy producers that produce electricity with carbon emissions that are below the baseline could earn credits which could be sold to other producers who produce electricity with emissions above the baseline. It is a form of carbon trading. (Holderhead, 2016) In Arrows formula p is the term that denotes time preference. According to Arrow, at any given point of time , equals the sum of the utility rate of discount () and the rate of growth in consumption between t and the present (g) weighted by (minus) the elasticity of marginal utility of consumption (). This simply means that how much present consumption growth to consumption would be preferred to consumption in the later generations. In case of a non-ratification of the Paris Climate Change Agreement, the policy simply implies that the administration considers the present benefits to be greater than the future benefits. However, it must be added that p adds to the impact of growth but does not affect the sensitivity of the future growth of consumption or the elasticity of the social benefit of consumption. In mathematical analysis, a lower p would have an effect of lowering the component. In order to maintain equilibrium, either the g component would have to be higher or the component would have to be lower. In the diagram below, curves P1 and P2 represent the preference combination or how much is present consumption preferred to future consumption. Curves CDC1 and CDC2, represent the slopes or the Marginal Rate of Time Preference (MRTP) of Future Consumption to Present Consumption. In the diagram below, as the present consumptions is preferred to future consumption, the future consumption is lower as well as the discount rate is lower. This is reflected as a shift from 0 to 1 . The USA in June 2017 took a stance of withdrawing from the Paris Climate Agreement of 2015 citing the negative effect of such a pact on the economic growth of USA in the nearer term.(Shear, 2017). This policy indicates a high time preference. In case of the policy stance taken by Mr. Trump, the President of USA, the social rate of preference is already set (i.e. a preference for present utility is made instead of being descriptive i.e determined based on research and analysis) and it would be very high. In such a case, the discount rate would be lower. Either the society must allow to be lower or make an effort to increase the total value g component on the right hand side of the equation by increasing the consumption/production frontier.. In the diagram above, the society will shift from P1 curve to P2 curve. In the diagram, the point where 0 and the marginal rate of substitution are equal, is the equilibrium point Eo. This is the point where the society has the right balance of the time preference as well as the future benefits that is wants. However, of the society wants to increase its time preference, then it must accept a lower discount rate (1 ) or function at a higher preference curve (P2 ) with a higher consumption demand curve. One way of interpreting this is that future generations would have to find more innovative solutions to increase g component and to ensure a positive g component and the task of discovering technologies or processes by which the marginal social cost of attaining growth is low (in order to minimize ). In order to increase g, increasing the capacity of production from renewable resources is important because the social costs of renewable energy tend to be low. In addition, there are capacity constraints presented by non-renewable resources since the supply of non-renewable resources cannot be increased. In case there is no increase in capacity for production, future generations would have to be more willing to sacrifice their consumption i.e they must have a lower preference for consumption growth in the future. An implication of this analysis is that that policy interventions act as a platform that would make future consumption easier. If policy interventions have a high time preference then, effectively, we are taking away from the consumption of the future generations since the consumption curve would shift to the left. Given that climate change is a global phenomenon, the values assigned are applicable globally. The implication is that we assign a low value for globally. This implies that countries that might grow in the future (for example, African nations) would have to make proportionately larger compensations in the consumption of environmental goods (here, emissions) for their economic growth as compared to countries like USA, that are responsible for more emissions in the current scenario. Bibliography ACIL Allen Consulting. (2016). Electricity emissions modelling for Australias emissions projections. Brisbane: ACIL Allen. Arrow, K. J. (2007, June). Global Climate Change:A Challenge to Policy. Economists' Voice . Arrow, K. J., Cropper, M. L., Gollier, C., Groom, B., Heal, G. M., Newell, R. G., et al. (2011). How Should Benefits and Costs Be Discounted in an Intergenerational Context? The Views of an Expert Panel. Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency. Department of Environment and Energy, Commonwealth of Australia . (2016). Australias emissions projections 2016. Australia: Commonwealth of Australia . Frederick, S. (1999). Discounting, Time Preference, and Identity. USA: Department of Social and Decision Sciences, Carnegie Mellon University. Holderhead, S. (2016, December 5). Energy Intensity Scheme - instead of Carbon Tax pushed for Australia's Struggling Electricity Market. Retrieved August 31, 2017, from The Advertiser: www.adelaidenow.au International Monetary Fund. (2015). IMF Survey: Counting the Cost of Energy Subsidies. Paris: International Monetary Fund. Lipsey, R., Chrystal, A. (2011). Economics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Morton, A. (2017, March 08). Energy crisis: Wholesale power prices have doubled since the carbon tax was axed. Retrieved August 31, 2017, from The Sydney Morning HEral: https://www.smh.com.au/federal-politics/political-news/energy-crisis-wholesale-power-prices-have-doubled-sice-the-carbon-tax-was-axed-20170308-gutf8t.html Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2017). Going for Growth : Australia. OECD. Riley, G. (2005). European Economy in Focus. BerkShire (UK) : Tutor 2 u online. Roca, F. (2013, November 27). Australia's Population Set to Double to 46 Million by 2075, Australian Bureau of Statistic Projections Set to Slow. Retrieved August 31, 2017, from ABC News: www.abc.net.au/news/2013-11-27/australia's-population-set-to-double-by-2075/511775 Shear, M. D. (2017, June 1). Trump Will Withdraw U.S. From Paris Climate Agreement. Retrieved August 21, 2017, from The New York Times: https//nytimes.com/2017/06/01/climate/trump-plparis-climate-agreement.html Stern, S. N. (2007, November 29). Stern: Climate Change A 'MArket Failure'. (A. Benjamin, Interviewer) Thomas, V. (2017, July 12). The Danger of Dismissing Market Failures. Retrieved August 30, 2017, from Brookings Insitute: htttp/www.brookings.edu/the-danger-of-dismissing-market-failure

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

My Life Journey and Baseball free essay sample

Feet shoulder width apart. Knees bent. Weight on my back foot. Head down and still. My eyes concentrated on the pitcher. The determined stare of the opponent reflecting right back at me while I’m waiting for that ball to be released and zip at me. I hear a fellow teammate cheer me on from first base: â€Å"Come on, big guy! Let’s crack one out of here!† But it’s not as easy as it sounds. Hitting a round ball with a round bat is one of the hardest things to do in sports if you succeed three times out of ten, you’re considered a hero. The wind up and the pitch. Taking that small step forward and focusing on the white ball with the hint of red from the stitching. Starting to swing, I have that quick second where I am are able to think a complete thought. We will write a custom essay sample on My Life Journey and Baseball or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Am I even close? This is so much pressure; I need to come up in the clutch here. Hearing the pop of the catcher’s mitt, I exhale with a side of relief and disappointment. â€Å"Strike one!† shouts the umpire. I step out of the batter’s box, knocking the dirt of my cleats and regaining my composure, ready for the next opportunity. I step back in the box, perfect my mechanics and set myself. He winds up again. I’m ready to come up big, even though I swung and missed the pitch before. I can’t let that bring me down, though because at the end of the at bat, I’m just beating myself. The pitch approaches me; I take a good hack at the ball and hear the sweet relieving sound of the â€Å"ding† of the bat. â€Å"Foul ball!† says the umpire. I become slightly disappointed, but glad I am making progress. 0-2. I dug myself in the hole, but I’m not dead yet. Anxious, I take a deep breath and get ready for my possibly last chance. I set myself up and watch the pitcher wipe the sweat off his head from throwing so hard. Just like me, he is composing himself. He’s ready. I’m ready. The pitch. Another solid ding, but this time I see the ball fly straight into the outfield, just missing the arm’s length of the shortstop by a foot. Excited and accomplished, I sprint to first base. I have reached my goal. Baseball relates to what my life is all about, meeting frequently set goals. As I approach the plate for the first time, I ready myself and begin to concentrate. Every day, I ready myself mentally and physically to be prepared for the day. My fellow teammates cheer me on is like my family and friends who want to see me do well. Not always succeeding in baseball is just as fine as not always succeeding in life. Many times I don’t accomplish everything I would like to. And that’s fine. No one is perfect. Just like the ball, life comes at you fast. There is no slowing it down, eit her. So I have to make my decision and be ready for what is coming to me. If I fail, the right thing to do is learn from my loss and try again. No one’s perfect. So on my second attempt, I make progress. If I still don’t reach my goal, I would use to think I’m done, it’s over, I’ve failed, but that’s the old me. Instead, I am now glad knowing I have made progress and I become prepared for my next opportunity.